This November 20 marks the 112th anniversary of the start of the Mexican Revolution after being born in 1910 as an uprising against the dictatorship of Porfirio Díaz.
López Obrador reiterates the call for a popular march in Mexico
The Mexican Revolution carried out a series of transformations that included the demands of peasants, indigenous people, and the poor who demanded profound social, economic, and political changes.
Below we present a brief biography of the main leaders of the revolutionary feat that contributed to the birth of modern Mexico.
Francisco I Madero
Francisco I. Madero was a businessman, politician, president of Mexico and promulgator of the San Luis Plan, considered the document that marked the beginning of the Mexican Revolution.
The businessman Francisco Ignacio Madero was during his brief tenure at the head of the Mexican Government a profound architect of the political reforms in the country, after having been the leader who contributed to the removal of Porfirio Díaz from power in 1911.
However, in his government the struggles between the different factions continued in the country and Madero was executed after the military coup led by General Victoriano Huerta, in the historical episode known as the “Tragical Ten” in 1913.
The so-called “Caudillo del Sur” was a direct witness of the endemic disease suffered by most of the population, who lived in poverty, generated by economic policies and the poor distribution of wealth, during the Porfiriato.
Once Madero occupied the presidency, Zapata realized that his demands would never be resolved, so he decided, on November 25, 1911, to sign the Ayala Plan, to grant legality to his agrarian movement. In it he did not know President Madero.
After several years of struggle and before the triumph of the constitutionalist revolution, and the open rebellion that he sustained against the government, it was decided to eliminate him, for which he was assassinated on April 10, 1919.
Francisco “Pancho” Villa
He was born on June 5, 1878, in Río Grande, Durango.; As is well known, his real name was Doroteo Arango. His parents, Agustín Arango and Micaela Arámbula, were people with few resources, so it was difficult for them to afford the expenses and the education of their five children.
Villa, known as the “Centauro del Norte”, without professional military education formed for the Constitutionalist Army, leading the troops in the north, Álvaro Obregón in the northwest, Pablo González in the center, and Emiliano Zapata in the south.
His center of operations was practically Chihuahua, and he distinguished himself by the bizarre cavalry charges, with which his Northern Division attacked Porfirio, Huerta and Constitutionalists.
Victoriano Carranza and “Pancho” Villa fought the de facto government until Huerta’s resignation in July 1914, however they distanced themselves throughout the revolutionary feat.
Tired of riding tirelessly, in 1920 he decided to make a pact with the government, and retire to civilian life, until his assassination on July 20, 1923, in Parral, Chihuahua.
Upon learning in February 1913 that Victoriano Huerta had assumed executive power and assassinated President Madero, Carranza, in his capacity as Governor of Coahuila, summoned the state legislature, which disavowed the usurper and granted him powers to assist the government. restoration of legal order in the Republic.
On March 26, at the Guadalupe Treasury, he proclaimed the Guadalupe Plan, which disavowed Huerta as president, the legislative and judicial powers, and the state governments, which 30 days after that date still obeyed the federal administration.
“The Revolution is going to explode at any moment. The symptoms of the formidable cataclysm leave no doubt that something is about to rise and something to collapse, that something is going to rise and something is about to fall.”
Ricardo Flores Magón, November 19, 1910. pic.twitter.com/eDQm7zdZ9r
— INEHRM (@INEHRM)
November 19, 2021
He brought together the main revolutionary actors who fought against the Huerta dictatorship under his cause, and he was the leader of the Constitutionalist Revolution; His main contribution to the political life of the country was the promulgation of the Constitution of 1917, in which the highest social precepts promoted by the revolutionaries were synthesized.
Obregón was one of the generals who joined the armed movement after Madero’s assassination and was one of the architects of bringing peace to the country in the 1920s, after the triumph of the revolutionaries in 1917.
Despite Carranza’s management at the head of the Government, numerous local movements, which arose during the armed feat, continued to be active and generals disputed positions and territory.
As President, he applied the Agrarian Law of January 6, 1915; he sought the support of organized labor groups and promoted the education of the people through the rural school.
In order for him to become President of the Republic again, the Constitution had to be reformed, and as a consequence of this he was elected in the July 1928 elections, however, on July 17 of that same year he was assassinated in La Bombilla restaurant, in Mexico City.